Electric spindle: new technology in the field of CNC machine tools

The electric spindle is a new technology that integrates the machine tool spindle and the spindle motor in the field of CNC machine tools in recent years. Together with linear motor technology and high-speed tool technology, it will push high-speed machining to a new era. The electric spindle is a set of components, including the electric spindle itself and its accessories: electric spindle, high frequency inverter, oil mist lubricator, cooling device, built-in encoder, tool changer.

The technology of electric spindle is integrated: high-speed bearing technology, electric spindle usually adopts composite ceramic bearing, wear-resistant and heat-resistant, life is several times that of traditional bearing; sometimes electromagnetic suspension bearing or hydrostatic bearing is used, inner and outer rings are not in contact, theoretically Unlimited life.

High-speed motor technology: The electric spindle is the product of the motor and the main shaft. The rotor of the motor is the rotating part of the main shaft. In theory, the electric spindle can be regarded as a high-speed motor. The key technology is dynamic balancing at high speeds.

Lubrication: Lubrication of electric spindles is generally done with timed quantitative oil and gas lubrication; grease lubrication can also be used, but the corresponding speed is compromised. The so-called timing is to inject oil at regular intervals. The so-called quantification is to precisely control the amount of oil per lubricant through a device called a dosing valve. Oil and gas lubrication means that the lubricating oil is blown into the ceramic bearing under the carrying of compressed air. Oil quantity control is very important, too little, and does not provide lubrication; too much, when the bearing rotates at high speed, it will heat up due to oil resistance.

Cooling device: In order to dissipate heat from the high-speed electric spindle as soon as possible, the outer wall of the electric main shaft is usually circulated with coolant, and the cooling device functions to maintain the temperature of the coolant.

Built-in pulse encoder: In order to realize automatic tool change and rigid tapping, the electric spindle has a built-in pulse encoder to achieve accurate phase angle control and cooperation with feed.

Automatic tool changer: In order to be applied to the machining center, the electric spindle is equipped with an automatic tool changer, including disc springs, broach cylinders, etc.; high-speed tool loading methods: widely known BT, ISO tools, has been proved by practice Not suitable for high speed machining. In this case, high-speed tools such as HSK and SKI have appeared.

High-frequency inverter device: To realize the speed of tens of thousands or even hundreds of thousands of revolutions of electric spindle every minute, a high-frequency inverter device must be used to drive the built-in high-speed motor of the electric spindle. The output frequency of the inverter must reach thousands or several kilohertz. .

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